Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Teachers Need To Give Our Support To Pascale Mauclair

The righteous rise/With burning eyes/Of hatred and ill-will/Madmen fed on fear and lies/To beat and burn and kill....Neil Peart 1981

Last night before the radio show I was reading Edwize to do catch up on what I wished to discuss with Leo Casey. But before I could I get the information I was seeking I came across an excellent blog post by Leo of the plight of Pascale Mauclair who through no fault of her own was rated the worst teacher in New York City. And of course the New York Post and "reporter" Georgett Roberts was there to not only kick her when Ms Mauclair was down, but to throw the proverbial salt into her wounds.

The New York Post and it's reporter Georgett Roberts decided to make Ms. Mauclair its target. Not only did Roberts find the need to harass Ms Mauclair's father at his own home, but found the need to go to her home, on private property and hound and harass her as well. When they couldn't get any information from her Roberts started to hound and harass Ms Mauclair's neighbors as well. Police had to be called in twice. Obviously Roberts didn't get the hint the first time.

Never mind, and Leo Casey pointed this out in his blog post, that Ms Mauclair's school, PS 11, came out of its quality review as proficient, but that by any conceivable measure it is a successful school which is 100% over capacity.

Also, let's not forget being in Woodside, Queens the number of ELL's in the school, the amount of free lunches, the students from troubled homes. This school works.

Worse, The Post and Georgett Roberts need to stretch the truth more. In the article this past Sunday "reporter" Roberts blabbered, "ranked among the very bottom out of more than 12,000 fourth- through eighth-grade math and English teachers citywide." Amazing, simply amazing. But how is it possible that Ms Muclair was amongst the worst in English when there were no scores for her at all? Just her math from 2010 and lifetime math scores were shown. And still no one can explain what the hell her lifetime math score mean.

But in 2010 Ms Mauclair had 11 students in her class. What do we know of these students? What do we know of their homes? Previous test scores. Could it be that the previous year each and every student of Ms Maulcair got every single question correct on their 5th grade math exam and statistically only went down? My son aced 3rd grade math, should his 4th and 5th grade teachers be held accountable?

There is so much we do not know about what goes into a kids mind. Especially a 6th grade student that MS Mauclair teachers. Most of these students at that age are in, or what on the cusp of puberty and adolescence. We should all remember that which we all went through.

And let's not forget, and at least in my opinion, that boys fare tougher. I see it now with my own son who is in 5th grade. He just made high honor roll for the past quarter and since 3rd grade has always made honor roll. He standardized test scores are outstanding. But, his behavior has been a bit off lately and we are attributing it to that he does not want to seem like a brainiac. He wants to be seen as a jock, as one of the guys, and not some nerdy kid. This is what happens.

Name me a scientist that would allow all the variables that are present in students, in children's lives to be part of any experiment. In fact, how could a scientist make a plausible hypothesis on any experiment with all the variables we see in students? Yet, we as educators are not only asked to come up with a system which is imperfect and has countless variables to judge students, but worse, it is being used against us. It does not make sense.

But she's nobody's hero/Is the voice of reason against the howling mob/ the pride of purpose/In the unrewarding job...Neil Peart 1993

I have never met Pascale Mauclair and I don't know if I every will, but I hope to some day. The class and dignity she has shown should all be a lesson to not only us as teachers, but to her students and the students of New York City as well. What a lesson on facing adversity and holding your head high it can be using Ms. Mauclair as an example. She is an example, she is a light of what teaching is, what it should be, and what it can always be. We need to support Ms Mauclair in any way possible. We are are  brothers, sister, and comrades. Perhaps one day Ms. Mauclair can give a lesson to Uncle Mike about class.

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Abbott and Costello Meet the Teacher Data Reports

It had to happen. The farcical world of Abbott and Costello has hit the NYC DOE.

Abbott: Well Costello, I'm going to New York. You know NYC DOE Chancellor Dennis Walcott gave me a job at Tweed as long as you are a teacher.
Costello: Look Abbott, if you're at Tweed, you must know how the Teacher Data Reports work.
Abbott: I certainly do.
Costello: Well you know I've never read mine. So you'll have to tell me my rating and then I'll know how I am doing
Abbott: Oh, I'll tell you your rating, but you know it seems to me they give these teachers now-a-days very ratings.
Costello: You mean funny ratings?
Abbott: Strange ratings names, like Shitty, Great, Sucks, Good
Costello: Oh and….?
Abbott: Poor. But the NYC DOE and an economist have solved those names with better names.
Abbott: Well, let's see, we have as ratings for teachers, Highly Effective, Effective, Developing…..
Costello: That's what I want to find out.
Abbott: What did I say, Highly Effective, Effective, Developing…..
Costello: Are you the principal? What do these ratings mean?
Abbott: No, I am not the principal.
Costello: What are you?
Abbott: Just a nameless bureaucrat
Costello: And you don't know what the ratings mean?
Abbott: Well I should.
Costello: Well then am I a highly effective teacher based on my ELA TDR reports published in the New York Times of February 24?
Abbott: Yes.
Costello: So you think I am highly effective.
Abbott: No.
Costello: I’m not. I’m a baaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaad boy!
Abbott: Yes, you are not. There is a +/- rating of 75% according to Yoav Gonan of The New York Post
Costello: So The Times gave me a 85%. So what am I now?
Abbott: Screwed. Among the worst in NYC you are down to 10%
Costello: So I’m…..?
Abbott: Ineffective!
Costello: Wait, I have The Times here. The Times says the +/- is 50% for ELA so I am no longer ineffective.
Abbott: That's not true.
Costello: OK, I’m effective?
Abbott: Yes.
Costello: Well go ahead and tell me.
Abbott: That's it.
Costello: That's effective?
Abbott: Yes.
Costello: Look, how do you say that I am effective? First you say I am ineffective, than developing, now………
Abbott: Highly Effective.
Costello: What?
Abbott: In Math.
Costello: How am I highly effective in Math?
Abbott: You got a score of 35 right.?
Costello: Right!
Abbott: The Yoav Gonen +/- margin of error in math is 60%.Costello: The guy that gets...
Costello: So now I am highly effective...
Abbott: Yes!
Costello: Do these score accurately show what kind of teacher I am
Abbott: Yes. What's wrong with that?
Costello: Look, all I wanna know is are the scores accurate.
Abbott: What.
Costello: The scores
Abbott: Why
Costello: So I know I will have a job, so I know what kind of teacher I am.
Abbott: You have the scores; figure it out your self.
Costello: Yes
Abbott: So you are, as long as you fall into the margin of error.
Costello: All I'm trying to find out is how can I be all over the place with my ratings
Abbott: You can
Costello: Can what?
Abbott: Be effective, highly effective, ineffective and developing all at once.
Costello: One rating at a time
Costello: Let me ask you this,
Abbott: Take it easy, buddy, but OK
Costello: I'm only asking you, several of my students moved into the school a week before the tests
Abbott: That's right.
Costello: Ok.
Abbott: All right.
Costello: So how can I be rated on what I taught these students.
Abbott: You can.
Costello: I can?
Abbott: Yes.
Costello: Why?
Abbott: They’re your students.
Costello: But they were my students for a week. The came from ANOTHER state!!!
Abbott: Were they on your roster?
Costello: Abbott……
Abbott: Yes Costello……
Costello: As a teacher I have one thing to say.
Abbott: What's that?
Costello: The DOE is doing everything it can to make me not give a darn and retire.
Abbott: That’s exactly what we want to do.

Saturday, February 25, 2012

UFT VP Leo Casey Live Internet Radio February 28!

This Tuesday night, February 28 at 9 PM EST United Federation of Teachers Vice President Leo Casey joins us live to discuss the new NYS as well as NYC teacher evaluation that Governor Andy Cuomo brokered. 

Mr Casey wrote a piece defending, as well as explaining, the new evaluation agreement at Edwize (the official blog of the UFT) yesterday, and has taken a lot of heat. Though we at SBSB disagree with Leo, we do applaud him for taking the heat.     

The call in # for the show is (213) 943-3735

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Little Evan Stone of Educators 4 Excellence Influences Governor Cuomo

I have had it. Enough of the kvetching, the bellyaching, the whining, the blaming. We are directing out anger, out outrage, our concern over the new evaluation system at the wrong people. Governor Andy, Uncle Mike, Mulgrew, Randi, they are all just pawns of some bigger entity, a bigger force.

We must bequeath our anger, our collective anger at the person behind it all. The true Svengali, the ultimate puppet master in this abhorrent agreement. We must all direct our anger and scorn to Little Evan Stone of Educators4Excellence. He is the one to show vengeance and dislike towards. Little Evan is the one to give an atomic wedgie to. Little Evan is too blame.

How do we know this? Simple. Little Evan Stone told us so. Yes, he told us that in his latest video in which he more or less shares his happiness and joy in the new evaluation system.

Little Evan said, "This entire policy proposal is based on last years E4E policy team."

So, we have Little Evan to thank for this? He said so himself. So for all the teachers out there that will be screwed by this new evaluation system, please drop a line to Little Evan Stone at 212-279-8510 ext 11 or email Little Evan and let him know how you feel!

We here at SBSB find it rather presumptuous that Little Evan is taking credit for this. Yes, he is all smug that what E4E policy dweebs created. But seriously, do you think that any time anything other than what Little Evan was directed to do by his handlers was going to get passed?  It's like on the first day of school when we make the class rules. We let the students think they are creating the rules, when in reality we are guiding them to what we as teachers wish the rules to be.

Little Evan starts off the video by letting us know that it is now a great day for educators. He says that everyone put politics aside to do "what's right for the students and the teachers of New York."

How was what's right being done for the students? With yet another level of tests and/or assessments that means that more time, much more time, will be taken away from instruction and be funneled into time taking tests. More reason for students to have anxiety and a sense of worthlessness. Do we really need to judge students art work, music, physical abilities?

What about teachers? How do we judge the art teacher, the phys ed. teacher, the music teacher? What happens when, and this will happen, a veteran teacher who has had years upon years of accolades, honors from students, parents, and the school community year after year has her VAM go down 2 years in a row due to outside influences that teacher has ZERO control over? This teacher no matter what will be deemed ineffective and be terminated. That teacher will have Little Evan Stone to thank.

Little Evan says, "that for the last two years we have been waiting for a system that gives us meaningful feedback,"

Well, dude we are still waiting. When is it going to happen?

Little Evan seems so happy when he says, "any teacher that is rated ineffective that will get an outside observer."

The devil will be in the details. To whose allegiance will this outside observer be? Who will be paying this outside observer? Aren't there better ways to spend the money than on outside observers?

The cheating scandals coming down the pike will be nothing like we have never seen in the past. When a teacher is cornered into risking feeding their families or risking manipulating students test scores, the latter will win out. No one will benefit from this. But it doesn't matter. The little worm, parasite, Little Evan Stone got what he wanted. He manipulated and cajoled and lied.

Remember, so many people to blame in this mess. But as he says, Little Evan Stone is most responsible for this evaluation system. When a teacher is on the unemployment line, struggling to feed their family, look no further than Little Evan Stone to blame.

Oh, one more thing. This week the TDR's will be released. Let's see how Little Evan, Princess Sydney, and the rest of the E4E jackboots do.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Internet Troll Anthony Krinsky Debases Mona Davids

It seems that gadfly, education deform blogger, and poster boy for the psycho-pharmaceutical industry Anthony Krinsky has found a new person to create fantasies about. That person is student and parent advocate Mona Davids.

When we last visited the fantasy world of Anthony Krinsky we explored, then easily debunked, his criticism of Mona. This past Saturday, February 11, Krinsky again created innuendo and fantasy in again defaming and defiling Mona.

But Krinsky does not know Mona. To paraphrase Mona, she is "a black mother of a public school student running a grassroots parents organization fighting for a quality education for all children in NYC, children who also happen to be majority black children."

I think the point Mona might be making is that she, a black woman, a woman that lives in an urban setting, a woman with a child, knows more what is best for a school system that is majority black than a condescending, white, trust fund parasite, suburban, childless, Ivy League grad, smart ass.

Krinsky speculates, or at least fantasizes; What are we to make of a teacher union supported parents organization calling itself "NYC Parents Union" that had no support or endorsement from Ben Austin's Parent Revolution organization.

Firstly, we here at SBSB suggest that a extra dose of Lithium should be taken by the erstwhile writer. This perhaps will help to calm the nerves and bring the writer back to a reasonable reality. But we are diverting from the accusations made by Krinsky, and the facts in this case.

Krisnky whined that Mona's organization, NYC Parents Union is "teacher union supported." Using the English language in a correct manner, this would imply that only teachers unions, and in particular the UFT, are the only supporters behind initiating and supporting NYCPU. Yes, Krinsky probably got his information from a New York Post article, but then again we all know how loose with facts The Post is. Besides, if NYCPU were in fact solely supported by teachers unions, why then does Mona use Word Press templates in her do it yourself website? We here at SBSB suggest that Krinsky do some fact checking and actually prove this statement. Perhaps Krinsky wishes that a more glitzy look to her website is in order? Perhaps akin to his own blog?

But what else is Krinsky whining about? Oh yes, what does Ben Austin and Parent's Revolution have to do with Mona's website? Krinsky, are you appalled that Mona had the temerity to use the word "Revolution"? Or do you think that any organization advocating for parents must be approved by your idol Ben Austin. Oh, just as an aside. Parents Revolution disavows you at every chance they get and does truly hope that there is some sort of intervention in your very near future.

It seems as though Mona Davids and her teacher union backers are quite comfortable perpetrating this deception

What deception? Someone can't be pro parent? I am pro-mental health and mean it. I truly support those in our community that have undiagnosed bi-polar disorders. I truly support those that have been diagnosed with narcissistic and malignant personality disorders as well. I don't need the mental health professionals to tell me to do it, I support these troubled people because it is the right thing to do.

But Krinsky decided that as the arbiter of all that he thinks is sane to have a litmus test for Mona. Krinsky demands that Mona answer; Do you support rewarding individual teaching performance (ie. paying great teachers more and laying off bad teachers regardless of age)?

Let me take a stab at that question. Krinsky, can you even articulate what a great teacher is? Is it statistically possible to have only great teachers? What about darn good teachers? Can you articulate what a bad teacher is? Oh, and please don't give us that fantasy you created about West Philadelphia High School. We all know it never happened. 

Do you support policies that encourage the non-unionized, independently run schools (ie. charter schools and private school scholarships)?

Did you know that Mona has, or at least had, a kid in a charter school? Did you know that Mona fights for charter school parents to have PA's which many charter schools deny the parents even though it is state law? So many charters though are non-unionized, yet only 20% of charters do as well or as better than the local traditional public school. Krinsky, would you want a .200 hitter batting cleanup for your baseball team? 

Krinsky goes on and shows that he thinks he understands trade dress law; There can be no doubt at all that this is a premeditated plan to impersonate reform organizations and trick parents into supporting the status quo.  Would such a hijacking of "StudentsFirst" and "Parents Union" fail a "likelihood of confusion" test under US trademark law?

Yeah, this was a good laugh. However, on Governor Andy (I Love The Kock Brothers) Cuomo's website he has a "NY Students First Page " (3rd tab from the left). So does Florida State. So does the Minnesota state colleges and universities. So does this book written in 2007. It must suck to be swaddled with facts. But to quote Neil Peart from the 1993 song Roll The Bones, "A fact's a fact Jack, from Nome to Rome."

In an arena where credibility matters, Mona Davids is proving that her depravity has no limit.

Mona has more credibility in  one blood cell than Krinsky has in his entire body. This coming from someone that seems incapable of writing factually, a person that creates what the story shall be in his mind, a person that has no problem criticizing teachers yet is scared to put his money where is mouth is. Please Krinsky, share with the world your credibility. Not as you see it, but with hard verifiable facts. 

Does the consumer protection bureau need to protect poor families from predatory scammers like NYC "Parents Union"?

Call! Oh God this is just so funny. Please, I am peeing all over myself! Someone get me a Depends. PLEASE!!!!

I expect that StudentsFirst will protect their brand to the fullest extent of the law.  Both infringements must be tried case in the court of public opinion.

Oh the hyperbole, oh the hyperbole!!!!

To go on to another topic, we here at SBSB wish to let everyone know that May is Mental Health Month in The Untied States, but it is never too early to reach out to those who are close to us and encourage those to seek out treatment for their disorders. Be it bi-polar disorder, schizoid effective disorder, some type of personality disorder, or even one coping with low self esteem from a severe Freudian physical shortcoming, help can be had.

There are many avenues available that such a person as described in the above paragraph can receive help. Seeing a trained psycho-therapist several times a week can do the trick. So can traveling to Vienna and seeking out a team for intense personal care. Also, there are many psycho-pharmaceuticals out there that are FDA approved and known to help those with such disorders. And the old stand by, electro shock therapy ain't gonna hurt.

So if you know someone whose life is being controlled by his mental disability, if you know someone that lies, distorts reality, a person that will not back up his accusations to someone's face, this is the time for you to have that intervention and help that person be rid of their mental disorder.

Tuesday, February 7, 2012

The Mistake Major Nelson Made

Major Tony Nelson made quite a mistake one day in the South Pacific. While stranded and awaiting a rescue team the good major saw a bottle and opened it. What popped out? A genie and his life was never the same. There is a lesson to be learned there. Can you figure it out?

The lesson is that once the genie is let out of the bottle, you ain't getting it back it in. It's out for good. Think of how much better Major Nelson's life would have been if he had never let Jeannie out of her bottle. All the nutty things that happened, the near nervous breakdown of Dr Bellows, the attempted manipulations of Major Healy, the constant mauling of uniforms by Jin-Jin all could have been avoided it Major Nelson just turned away.

How does this relate to the school atmosphere you might ask? It does in the fact all the zany, stupid, incompetent happenings of teachers lords and masters in the public school building. Time after time crises, lack of learning, lack of leadership, lack of discipline, are consistently dealt with the closing of the eyes and wishing the problem goes away. Teachers are made to feel as if they are on a sinking ship with just a bucket in their hand to scoop out the billions of gallons of water. Yet, it is to no avail. Even when the genies let you know that the iceberg is 50 miles away, nothing is done.

Nothing is done until it is too late. Yeah, that iceberg was seen from even 25 miles through 75X binoculars on a clear day. But not to worry! There is a plan.

But the plan says it is time to get serious. All the crap for the 7 months is out the window. A new day will reign and all will be forgotten for on this day, a new leaf is overturned. That new leaf is brown on the other side. It is dead. It should have been turned over the 2nd week of September when the genie was still in the bottle and the leaf still had life.

When that genie is out and about and you decide that this time it will be not be allowed to ruin a school, to ruin the learning process, it is too late. The genie has heard it all before and laughs in your face. Why should the genie listen. It is in charge. It knows that just a change in tone of voice, a change in inflection, it can go back and do what it wants. Why? Because it has been that way all year.

Remember, the next time you see that genie in your school, think of who opened that bottle. It never should have been opened.

Sunday, February 5, 2012

The New York Post Blows

Not too long ago I came across this article in the New York Post. This is about Christine Rubino, who taught at PS 203 in Flatlands, for posting “repulsive” comments on Facebook.

Several thoughts came to my mind. One, is it not ironic how the Post (and of course News Corp.) the harbinger of freedom is quick to mock someone for defending their constitutional rights of freedom of speech. Secondly, why the Post must claim how hard it is to fire a teacher. And lastly, geez, we never once said how, and even posted on FB, how we would like to see a close family member meet with an unfortunate accident?

So in light of this inanity by The Post I, in conjunction with The Frustrated Teacher, have set up a contest. In 6 words, describe how The Post has distorted the facts. You can reply to me on Twitter, or to TFT, (#NYPostBlows) or leave your comment here. The winner will win either dinner or a pitcher of beer with me and TFT.

Have fun. Be creative.

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

The Sycophancy of Little Evan Stone and Educators4Excellence Continues

Every time I see a Little Evan Stone and Princess Sydney Morris propaganda column in The New York Post or in fact anywhere I feel that it must be treated as if one were looking directly at Kollos, the Medusan ambassador.  But in reality, Little Evan and Princess Sydney are not Kollos, but more like Twiddle-Dee and Twiddle-Dum and just looking at them and reading what they wrote, or at the very least, what they were told to write invites laughter and derision.

In their latest mindless missive in the official propaganda publication of the NYC DOE, The New York Post, Little Evan and Princess Sydney start my sucking up mightily to Governor Andy's colon when they say, "Gov. Cuomo recently called himself “the students lobbyist.” In fact, he just may be the only effective lobbyist that teachers have right now, too.

Yes great start. So proud.
They blither on; For two years, classroom teachers across the state have been waiting for a new system of evaluation they were promised as part of the state’s Race to the Top package, a package passed into 

Yes, of course. Every teacher I have spoken with is just sitting on their edge of their seat with pins and needles just gosh darn waiting for that evaluation agreement to be approved. Not. Rather I know teachers who are waiting for a computer that was built after 1999 to be placed in their classroom. A computer that prints. A ream of paper from Staples. A proper curriculum. A curriculum. Competent administrators. Administrative accountability. Toilet paper in the bathrooms. Respect. Less paperwork. Less testing. Les Nessman. Text books. Basic supplies. A photo copier that works. Shall I go on. I think most people get the idea.

It’s hard to believe, but New York teachers have never been offered consistent, objective job-performance reviews,

It's hard to believe that a mayor that has systematically destroyed education in this city has been allowed to skate by virtually unscathed. Is that not the bigger horror?

But, again it is the administrator's fault. Every rating sheet has a check off boxes and a comment box. Simple, have principals use them. Require principals throughout the year meet with teachers, either informally, formally, or both and have a peer to peer discussion about that teacher. Simple. By the way, my way would be a lot, lot less expensive to implement. 

The biggest sticking point in negotiations was the UFT’s insistence on an unnecessarily arduous appeals process.

So I would assume that both Little Evan and Princess Sydney find that an independent arbitrator that will not be beholden to either the DOE or the UFT is unnecessarily arduous? Then I must agree that both these little elite children must find that an impartial judge and jury in our criminal justice system seems to them to be unnecessarily arduous.
 The state teachers union is suing the state over how big a role student test scores should play in a teacher’s rating, thus holding up the process.

Yeah, well they should, no. Why is NYSUT suing? Because.....The law on a teacher evaluation system was originally developed in a cooperative effort between the state and NYSUT. It called for 20 percent of an evaluation to be based on test scores, 20 percent on local assessments and 60 percent on principal evaluations. But at the last minute, the plan was changed, calling for up to 40 percent of a teacher’s grade to be determined by statewide test scores. Please stop the disingenuouty.

Either districts and unions agree to an evaluation structure in 30 days, or he’ll pass one for them during the budget process. It’s a bold yet necessary move to get a deal done.

Oh, oh. Looks like it's going to be a showdown on Western Ave. Looks like Sheriff Andy is going to take on those nasty evil teachers and show them. Whip 'em out at twenty paces. Just think Governor Andy will whip something else out to prove to all that he is a man.
Last year, a group of solutions-oriented Educators 4 Excellence teachers crafted thoughtful recommendations that deserve to be considered. They suggested a multi-measure evaluation system that includes student-growth data (the only objective picture of a student’s progress we now have), but also multiple classroom observations and student surveys, as well as standards of professionalism such as teacher attendance and contributions to the school community.

These ideas are backed by research, including the recent Gates Foundation Measures of Effective Teaching study, showing that a combination of these factors creates the most fair and reliable system.

Yes of course! If some dumb ass Gates Foundation study says it's true, well gosh diddly darn, it must be true! But, E4E will never bite the hand that feeds it. 

In other words, we already know what works.

You do? Prove it. Oh yeah, you two said it is working in Hillsborough County FL, Washington DC, and Colorado. My brother in law is an art teacher in Hillsborough County, let me ask him. From what I heard, they are several years of the screwing up we have yet to happen to us here in NYC.

Teachers don’t need an evaluation system to make them work hard; they already do. But such a system will help us to work smarter.


As elementary-school teachers in The Bronx, we knew there were students who left our classrooms well prepared,

As elementary teachers? You mean as former elementary teachers. Let's be honest OK? As far as students that left your classrooms well prepared, the facts seem to differ. Little Evan, we call on you to show us your scores!!!!!!!!

but also that there were others whom we could have helped more if we’d had the support and feedback all professionals deserve. 
So why didn't Sheldon Benardo principal of PS 86 give you support and feedback? Nothing was preventing him from doing so.
So it goes on. These two are dangerous. I had quite a Twitter conversation on Sunday night about the dangers these two and their quasi Hitler youth organization present. Yes, they are small, and yes, most of their members sign up to watch a train wreck, but the smugness and duplicity these two show is a danger, could be a danger and we must stop E4E. 

We as teachers, as educators, as parents, as citizens of this country can't make the same mistake that Chamberlain made in 1938.